|日期||R||主队 vs 客队||-|
|04/05 01:20||400||北卡罗来纳州 vs 堪萨斯||69-72|
|04/03 00:49||140||北卡罗来纳州 vs 杜克||81-77|
|04/02 22:09||140||维兰诺瓦 vs 堪萨斯||65-81|
|04/01 22:00||-||卡罗莱纳海岸 vs 加州州立大学弗雷斯诺分校斗牛犬||CANC|
|04/01 22:00||142||佛雷斯诺州立 vs 卡罗莱纳海岸||85-74|
|03/29 02:00||2||南犹他 vs 佛雷斯诺州立||48-67|
|03/29 00:00||2||卡罗莱纳海岸 vs 南阿拉巴马||69-68|
|03/27 21:05||138||圣彼得 vs 北卡罗来纳州||49-69|
|03/27 18:20||138||佛罗里达迈阿密 vs 堪萨斯||50-76|
|03/27 00:49||138||阿肯色 vs 杜克||69-78|
|03/26 22:09||138||休斯顿 vs 维兰诺瓦||44-50|
|03/26 22:00||3||波特兰 vs 南犹他||66-77|
In United States colleges, top-tier basketball is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), the United States Collegiate Athletic Association (USCAA), the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA), and the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA). Each of these various organizations are subdivided into one to three divisions, based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes.
Each organization has different conferences to divide up the teams into groups. Teams are selected into these conferences depending on the location of the schools. These conferences are put in due to the regional play of the teams and to have a structural schedule for each team to play for the upcoming year. During conference play the teams are ranked not only through the entire NCAA, but the conference as well in which they have tournament play leading into the NCAA tournament.
The history of basketball can be traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The sport was created by a physical education teacher named James Naismith, who in the winter of 1891 was given the task of creating a game that would keep track athletes in shape and that would prevent them from getting hurt. The date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismith's rules is generally given as December 21, 1891. Basketball began to be played at some college campuses by 1893.
The first known college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University, which played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee, on February 7, 1893, where Vanderbilt won 9–6. The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College's game against New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893, in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, which Geneva won 3–0.
The first recorded game between two college teams occurred on November 22, 1894, when the Drexel Institute of Art, Science and Industry (now known as Drexel University) faced Temple College (now known as Temple University). Drexel won the game, which was played under rules allowing nine players per side, among many other variations from modern basketball, 26–1. The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is often credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896. The Chicago team won the game 15-12, under the coaching of Amos Alonzo Stagg, who had learned the game from James Naismith at Springfield YMCA. However, some sources state the first "true" five-on-five intercollegiate match was a game in 1897 between Yale and Penn, because although the Iowa team that played Chicago in 1896 was composed of University of Iowa students, it reportedly did not officially represent the university, rather it was organized through a YMCA. By 1900, the game of basketball had spread to colleges across the country.
The Amateur Athletic Union's annual U.S. national championship tournament (first played in 1898) often featured collegiate teams playing against non-college teams. Four colleges won the AAU tournament championship: Utah (1916), NYU (1920), Butler (1924) and Washburn (1925). College teams were also runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932 and 1934.
The first known tournament featuring exclusively college teams was the 1904 Summer Olympics, where basketball was a demonstration sport, and a collegiate championship tournament was held. The Olympic title was won by Hiram College. In March 1908, a two-game "championship series" was organized between the University of Chicago and Penn, with games played in Philadelphia and Bartlett, Illinois. Chicago swept both games to win the series.
In March 1922, the 1922 National Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament was held in Indianapolis – the first stand-alone post-season tournament exclusively for college teams. The champions of six major conferences participated: Pacific Coast Conference, Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Western Pennsylvania League, Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Indiana Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The Western Conference and Eastern Intercollegiate League declined invitations to participate. Wabash College won the 1922 tournament.
The first organization to tout a regularly occurring national collegiate championship was the NAIA in 1937, although it was quickly surpassed in prestige by the National Invitation Tournament, or NIT, which brought six teams to New York's Madison Square Garden in the spring of 1938. Temple defeated Colorado in the first NIT tournament championship game, 60–36.
In 1939, another national tournament was implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The location of the NCAA Tournament varied from year to year, and it soon used multiple locations each year, so more fans could see games without traveling to New York. Although the NIT was created earlier and was more prestigious than the NCAA for many years, it ultimately lost popularity and status to the NCAA Tournament. In 1950, following a double win by the 1949–50 CCNY Beavers men's basketball team (when the NIT comprised 12 and the NCAA 8 teams), the NCAA ruled that no team could compete in both tournaments, and effectively indicated that a team eligible for the NCAA tournament should play in it. Not long afterward, assisted by the 1951 scandals based in New York City, the NCAA tournament had become more prestigious than before, with conference champions and the majority of top-ranked teams competing there. The NCAA tournament eventually overtook the NIT by 1960. Through the 1960s and 1970s, with UCLA leading the way as winner of ten NCAA Tournament championships, a shift in power to teams from the west amplified the shift of attention away from the New York City-based NIT. When the NCAA tournament expanded its field of teams from 25 to 32 in 1975, to 48 in 1980, to 64 in 1985, and to 68 teams in 2011, interest in the NCAA tournament increased again and again, as it comprised more and more teams, soon including all of the strongest ones. (Expansion also improved the distribution of playing locations, which number roughly one-third the number of teams in the field.)
In 2011, the NCAA field expanded to 68 teams and the last 8 teams playing for four spots making the field into 64, which is called the first round and so on. The former first round is called the second round, the second round is called the third round, and the Sweet Sixteen is the same, but it is technically the fourth round in the current format, etc.
In 2016, the field did not expand, but the round numbers changed again. The first four games containing the last 8 teams is now referred to as the first four. Consequently, the first round does not start until the first four games are out of the way and the field is narrowed to 64 teams. So after the first four games the first round starts instead of that being the second round. The Second is now when there are 32 teams left, the sweet sixteen is the third round, and so on.
In 2020, for the first time in the NCAA's history, the tournament had to be canceled due to fears of the COVID-19 pandemic. This move was done largely out of fear of the virus spreading to players and watchers, with prior attempts to limit the spread without canceling by first choosing to limit attendees, and then canceling the tournament in its entirety.
Racial integration of all-white collegiate sports teams was high on the regional agenda in the 1950s and 1960s. These issues included inequality, racism, and the alumni demand for the top players needed to win high-profile games. The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) took the lead. "College basketball data allow for direct comparisons of the racial differences in the marginal revenues generated by players" (Brown and Jewell 1995). First they started to schedule integrated teams from the North. The wake-up call came in 1966 when Don Haskins's Texas Western College team with five black starters defeated the all-white University of Kentucky team to win the NCAA national basketball championship. This happened at a time when there weren't any black varsity basketball players in either the Southeastern Conference or the Southwest Conference. Finally ACC schools—typically under pressure from boosters and civil rights groups—integrated their teams. With an alumni base that dominated local and state politics, society and business, the ACC flagship schools were successful in their endeavor—as Pamela Grundy argues, they had learned how to win:
The original rules for basketball were very different from today's modern rules of the sport, including the use of eight players per side. James Naismith established 13 original rules:
The following is a list of some of the major NCAA Basketball rule changes with the year they went into effect.
|1891–92||The first set of rules is created.|
|1900–01||A dribbler may not shoot for a field goal and may dribble only once, and then with two hands.|
|1908–09||A dribbler is permitted to shoot. The dribble is defined as the "continuous passage of the ball," making the double dribble illegal.|
Players are disqualified upon committing their fourth personal foul (women).
|1910–11||Players are disqualified upon committing their fourth personal foul (men).|
No coaching is allowed during the progress of the game by anybody connected with either team. A warning is given for the first violation and a free throw is awarded after that.
|1917–18||Players are disqualified upon committing their fifth personal foul (women only).|
|1920–21||The basket is moved to two feet from the baseline. Previously the players could climb the padded wall to get closer to the basket (with the new rule the wall is out of bounds).|
A player can re-enter a game once. Before this rule, if a player left the game, he could not re-enter for the rest of the game.
|1921–22||Running with the ball was changed from a foul to a violation.|
|1923–24||The player fouled must shoot his own free throws. Before this rule, one person usually shot all the free throws for a team.|
|1928–29||The charging foul by the dribbler is introduced.|
|1930–31||A held ball may be called when a closely guarded player is withholding the ball from play for 5 seconds.|
|1932–33||The 10-second (mid-court) line is introduced to reduce stalling (men only).|
No player with the ball may stand in the free throw lane for more than 3 seconds.
|1933–34||A player may re-enter a game twice.|
|1935–36||No offensive player (with or without the ball) may stand in the free throw lane for more than 3 seconds.|
|1937–38||The center jump after every made basket is eliminated.|
|1938–39||The ball will be thrown in from out of bounds at mid-court by the team shooting a free throw after a technical foul. Previously, the ball was put into play by a center jump after the technical free throw.|
|1939–40||Teams have the option of taking a free throw or taking the ball at midcourt.|
|1942–43||Any player who has yet to foul out, will be allowed to receive a fifth foul in overtime.|
|1944–45||Defensive goaltending is banned.|
Five personal fouls disqualifies a player; no extra foul is permitted in overtime (men).
Unlimited substitution is allowed.
Offensive players cannot stand in the free throw lane for more than 3 seconds.
|1948–49||Coaches are allowed to speak to players during a timeout.|
|1951–52||Games are to be played in four 10-minute quarters. Previously it was two 20-minute halves.|
|1952–53||Teams can no longer waive free throws and take the ball at midcourt.|
|1954–55||The one-and-one free throw is introduced allowing a player to take a second free throw if the first one is made.|
Games return to two 20-minute halves.
|1955–56||The two-shot penalty in existence for the last 3 minutes of each half is eliminated; the one-and-one free throw exists for the whole game.|
|1956–57||The free-throw lane is increased from 6 feet to 12 feet in width.|
On the lineup for a free throw, the two spaces adjacent to the end line must be occupied by opponents of the shooter. In the past, one space was marked 'H' for the home team, and one 'V' for the visitors.
Grasping the rim is ruled unsportsmanlike conduct.
|1957–58||Offensive goaltending is now banned.|
One free throw for each common foul for the first six personal fouls in a half, and the one-and-one is used thereafter.
|1967–68||The dunk is made illegal during the game and during warmups.|
|1969–70||Women's basketball introduces the five-player full-court game on an experimental basis.|
|1971–72||The five-player full-court game becomes mandatory for women's basketball.|
The 30-second shot clock is introduced (women only).
|1972–73||The free throw on the common foul for the first six personal fouls in a half is eliminated.|
An official can charge a technical foul on a player for unsportsmanlike conduct if the official deems the player 'flopped' to get a charging call.
Freshmen are now eligible to play varsity basketball.
|1973–74||Officials can now penalize players away from the ball for fouls for acts such as holding, grabbing and illegal screens.|
|1976–77||The dunk is made legal again.|
|1981–82||The jump ball is eliminated except for the start of the game and overtime if necessary. An alternating arrow will indicate possession of the ball in jump-ball situations in a game (men only).|
|1982–83||When a closely guarded player is guarded for 5 seconds, a jump ball is no longer required. Instead a turnover is created and the ball goes to the other team.|
|1983–84||Two free throws are issued if a foul occurs in the last two minutes of a half or in overtime (men only). This rule was rescinded a month into the season, before the start of conference play.|
|1984–85||A new, smaller ball ("size 6"; 28.5 inches circumference, 18 ounces) is introduced for women's play.|
|1985–86||The 45-second shot clock is introduced for men's play.|
If a shooter is intentionally fouled and the basket is missed, the shooter will get two free throws and the team will get possession of the ball.
|1986–87||A three-point shot was introduced, with the line a uniform 19 feet 9 inches (6.02 m) from the center of the basket. Mandatory for men's basketball; experimental for women's.|
The men's alternating possession rule is extended to the women's game.
|1987–88||The men's three-point line was made mandatory for women's basketball.|
Each intentional personal foul gives the non-fouling team two free throws and possession of the ball (men only).
The NCAA adopts a single rule book for men's and women's basketball for the first time, although some rules differ between the sexes to this day.
|1988–89||The men's rule regarding intentional fouls is extended to the women's game.|
|1990–91||Beginning with a team's 10th foul in a half, two free throws (the so-called "double bonus") are to be awarded for each non-shooting personal foul on the defense, and each loose-ball foul (men only).|
Three free throws are awarded when a shooter is fouled from three-point range and misses the shot (both men and women).
|1993–94||The men's shot clock is reduced from 45 seconds to 35 seconds.|
The game clock will be stopped with successful baskets in the last minute of each half and in the last minute of overtime, with no substitution permitted.The 5-second rule regarding closely guarded players is eliminated.
|1994–95||Scoring is restricted to a tap-in when 0.3 seconds or less remains on the game clock (men and women).|
|1997–98||The 5-second rule regarding closely guarded players is reinstated.|
Timeouts can be made by players on the court or the head coach.
The "double bonus" introduced to the men's game in 1990 is extended to the women's game.
|1998–99||In a held ball situation initiated by the defense, the defense shall gain possession of the ball regardless of the possession arrow.|
|1999–2000||The held ball rule from 1998 to 1999 was rescinded.|
Maximum of five players occupying lane spaces during free throws in women's play (two from the shooting team, three from the defending team).
|2000–01||In women's play only, if the defending team commits a foul during a throw-in after a made basket or free throw, the team putting the ball in play retains the right to run the end line during the subsequent throw-in.|
|2001–02||In women's play, six players now allowed in lane spaces (four defenders, two offensive players). Additionally, the defensive players nearest the basket are now required to line up in the second space from the basket.|
|2005–06||Kicked balls will no longer reset the shot clock. If the violation occurs with less than 15 seconds, the clock will be reset to 15 seconds.|
|2006–07||A timeout called by an airborne player falling out of bounds will not be recognized.|
|2007–08||The women's rule regarding lane alignment during free throws (maximum of four defenders and two offensive players, with the nearest defenders on the second space from the basket) is extended to the men's game.|
|2008–09||Three-point arc extended to 20 feet 9 inches (6.32 m) from the center of the basket for men's play only.|
Referees may use instant replay to determine if a flagrant foul has been committed and who started the incident.
When the entire ball is over the level of the basket during a shot and touches the backboard, it is a goaltending violation if the ball is subsequently touched, even if still moving upward.
|2011–12||Women's three-point arc extended to match men's arc.|
Restricted area arc created 3 feet from the center of the basket (men and women). When an offensive player makes contact with a defender who establishes position within this area, the resulting foul is blocking on the defender.
|2013–14||10-second backcourt rule introduced (women only).|
Any timeout called within the 30 seconds preceding a scheduled media timeout break replaces the media timeout (women only).
|2015–16||The men's shot clock changed to 30 seconds, making it identical to the women's shot clock.|
Coaches prohibited from calling timeouts from the bench in live-ball situations; players remain free to do so.
Restricted area arc extended from 3 feet to 4 feet from the center of the basket (men only).
Dunks are permitted during warm-ups.
Number of timeouts for each team reduced from 5 to 4.
Women's basketball changed from 20-minute halves to 10-minute quarters.
In women's basketball, bonus free throws come into effect on the fifth team foul in a quarter; all bonus free throw situations result in two free throws.
The women's rule regarding timeouts within 30 seconds of a scheduled media timeout was extended to the men's game.
|2016–17||Coaches allowed to call timeouts from the bench during inbounds plays before the pass is released.|
|2017–18||Men only: The shot clock will be reset to 20 seconds, or the amount remaining on the shot clock if greater, when the ball is inbounded in the frontcourt after (1) a defensive foul or (2) a deliberate kick or fisting of the ball by the defense.|
Men only: If an injured player is unable to shoot free throws as the result of a flagrant foul, or if the player is bleeding, only his substitute can shoot the ensuing free throws.
Men only: When the ball is legally touched inbounds and an official immediately signals a clock stoppage, a minimum of 0.3 seconds must elapse on the game clock.
Men only: A player dunking the ball may hold onto the rim to prevent injury to himself or another player, even if it would result in another violation.
Women only: No new 10-second backcourt count awarded if the team in possession is granted and charged a timeout.
Women's basketball adopted the men's 4-foot restricted area arc.
Women only: Abandoned the "flagrant-1" and "flagrant-2" foul designations in favor of the FIBA standard of "unsportsmanlike" and "disqualifying" fouls. The new "unsportsmanlike" designation now includes contact dead-ball technicals.
|2019–20||Men and women:
The One-and-done rule has been a part of college basketball since 2006, the first NBA draft it affected. The rule was created by NBA Commissioner, David Stern, which changed the draft age from 18 years old to 19 years old. This change meant players could not be drafted into the NBA straight out of high school. Instead, however, they usually went to a college to play only one season before entering the following NBA draft when they are eligible, hence the name One-and-Done. The first player to be drafted during this "one-and-done era" was Tyrus Thomas, a forward out of Louisiana State, who was drafted fourth overall in 2006.